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No one has ever been on the MOON ?!

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Author Topic: No one has ever been on the MOON ?!  (Read 101 times)
deathgod
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« on: December 24, 2008, 03:59:52 am »

According to the Videos that i've seen and the pictures being taken on the moon itself i guess that no man has ever been on the moon before ! There is one pic showing that the shadow is not lieing on the same direction in the space there is no other light other then the sun but there is two diffrent shadow ??!! What does this means ? Is it real ?!

according to the information i get that when they take the photo , the sky has no star but the explaination is :

Yuri Gagarin (who made one orbit of the Earth in 1961) commented that the stars were astonishingly brilliant (see the external link below). Hoax proponents say that NASA chose not to put the stars into the photos because astronomers would have been able to use them to determine whether the photos were taken from the Earth or the Moon, by means of identifying them and comparing their celestial position and parallax to what would be expected for either observation site.

 
Zarya from the Space Shuttle, no stars visible.
Space Shuttle Atlantis docked with Mir, no stars visible from the Soyuz spacecraft
No stars visible observing The Moon and Mir from the Space Shuttle Discovery
Long-exposure photo taken from the surface of the Moon by Apollo 16 using a special ultraviolet camera. It shows the Earth with the correct background of stars.Stars are also never seen in Space Shuttle, Mir, International Space Station Earth observation photos, or even sporting events that take place at night. The sun in the Earth/Moon area shines as brightly as on a clear noon day on Earth, so cameras used for imaging these things are set for daylight exposure, with quick shutter speeds in order to prevent overexposing the film. The dim light of the stars simply does not have a chance to expose the film. (This effect can be demonstrated on Earth by attempting to view stars from a brightly lit parking lot. You can only see them if you somehow block out all illuminated objects from your field of view, and then let your eyes adjust for night vision. Otherwise, it is like taking a picture of the night sky with exposure settings for a bright sunny day. Science fiction movies and television shows do confuse this issue by depicting stars as visible in space under all lighting conditions.) Stars were seen by every Apollo mission crew except for the unfortunate Apollo 13 (they couldn't see the stars due to the fact that oxygen and water vapor created a haze around the spacecraft). Stars were used for navigation purposes and were occasionally also seen through cabin windows when the conditions allowed. To see stars, nothing lit by sunlight could be in the viewer's field of view. (Plait 2002:158-60).
Stars are not dramatically brighter in space (above the Earth's atmosphere). Professional astronomer and two-time space shuttle astronaut Ronald A. Parise stated that he could barely see stars at all from space. He had to turn out all of the lights in the shuttle to even glimpse the stars (Plait 2002:160). Even with cameras several times more sensitive than the ones used on Apollo, it takes an exposure of several seconds for even the brighter stars to show up. [3] Exposure times of the Apollo photographs were a small fraction of a second, typically 1/250 of a second.
Payload restrictions made the transport of telescope facilities to the Moon unfeasible, and without these ordinary stellar photography would have served no (scientific) purpose. However, even without such facilities, the Moon does offer several advantages as an observation platform. The near-absence of an atmosphere means that stellar imaging is possible at many wavelengths which are not visible from Earth. Long-exposure photos were taken with a special far-ultraviolet camera by Apollo 16 astronauts on April 21, 1972 from the surface of the Moon. (This photo has some stars labeled.) Some of these photos show the Earth with stars from the Capricornus and Aquarius constellations in the background. The joint Belgium/UK./Holland satellite TD-1 later scanned the sky for stars that are bright in UV light. The TD-1 data obtained with the shortest passband is a close match for the Apollo 16 photographs. [4]
The ability to determine parallax is limited by the angular resolution of the instrument used. The most advanced dedicated experiment carried out to date—the Hipparcos satellite—achieved resolutions in the milliarcsecond range. Using as baseline the diameter of the Earth's orbit about the Sun (by comparing images taken six months apart), this allowed parallax measurements for stars out to a distance of approximately 1,000 parsecs. However, the distance from Earth to Moon is about a thousand times smaller than that baseline, which means that the detection limit is reduced to about 1 parsec. This is less than the distance to the nearest star, Alpha Centauri. Considering further that the resolution of an image taken with a conventional camera is many times lower than Hipparcos's, any such determination is entirely ruled out.[citation needed]
 
Original Apollo 14 photo, AS14-64-9191.
Enhancement of photos showing Venus.Though stars would not normally be visible to the naked eye during daylight, whether from the Earth, the Moon, or on orbit, the planet Venus (which is much brighter than any of the stars) was actually recorded on film by astronaut Alan Shepard at the conclusion of his second extravehicular activity, during the Apollo 14 mission. Shepard was preparing to ascend the ladder to re-enter the lunar module Antares, when he likely noticed Venus shining brightly next to the crescent Earth. He made a series of photographs with his chest-mounted Hasselblad camera, likely all at 1/250th second exposure, and differing f-stops. Owing to its position closer to the Sun and its complete coverage by clouds, Venus has a higher surface brightness than Earth, and is indeed visible to the unaided eye in broad daylight from Earth, given a sufficiently transparent sky. It would have been plainly visible to Shepard in the lunar sky, and easily recorded on film. See this page from the working copy of the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal (to appear eventually in the main journal pages). [5]
The relative positions of the Earth and Venus could not have been anticipated, owing to the altered timeline of the mission, and so this discovery constitutes proof that these photographs actually were recorded from the surface of the Moon.[citation needed]



What do you think ?


Apollo Moon Landing hoax conspiracy theories


Apollo Moon Landing hoax conspiracy theories are claims that some or all elements of the Apollo Moon landings were faked by NASA and possibly members of other involved organizations. Some groups and individuals have advanced various theories which tend, to varying degrees, to include the following common elements:

The Apollo astronauts did not land on the Moon;
NASA and possibly others intentionally deceived the public into believing the landing(s) did occur by manufacturing, destroying, or tampering with evidence, including photos, telemetry tapes, transmissions, and rock samples;
NASA and possibly others continue to actively participate in the conspiracy to this day.
Many commentators have published detailed rebuttals to the hoax claims, and these theories have been generally discounted.[1] A 1999 poll by The Gallup Organization found that 89 percent of the US public believed the landing was genuine, while 6 percent did not and 5 percent were undecided.


Independent evidence for Apollo Moon landings


Independent evidence for Apollo Moon landings is evidence from independent groups that supports the idea that NASA conducted manned Moon landings. One of the reasons for such an endeavor is to counter the Apollo Moon Landing hoax theories, by showing there is evidence independent of NASA and the US government that the manned moon landings really happened as NASA claims.


Existence and age of Moon rocks


A total of 382 kilograms (842 lb) of Moon rocks and moon dust were collected during the Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17 missions of the Apollo program.[1] Some 10 kg (22 lb) of the moon rocks have been destroyed during hundreds of experiments done by both NASA researchers and planetary scientists at research institutions unaffiliated with NASA. These experiments have confirmed the age and origin of the rocks as lunar and were used to identify lunar meteorites subsequently collected from Antarctica.[2] The Moon rocks are up to 4.5 billion years old [3], making them 700,000,000 years older than the oldest Earth rocks, which are from the end of the Hadean eon, 3.8 billion years ago. The rocks are very close in composition to the samples returned by the independent Soviet Luna programme.


Evidence of landing


The presence of retroreflectors (mirrors used as targets for Earth-based tracking lasers) from the Lunar laser ranging experiment (Laser Ranging RetroReflector; LRRR) left on the Moon is evidence of a landing.[5][6] Quoting from James Hansen's biography of Neil Armstrong (First Man: The Life of Neil A. Armstrong):

For those few misguided souls who still cling to the belief that the Moon landings never happened, examination of the results of five decades of LRRR experiments should evidence how delusional their rejection of the Moon landing really is.[7]

 
The NASA-independent Observatoire de la Côte D’Azur, McDonald, and Haleakala observatories are regularly using the Apollo LRRR.[8] The photo on the left shows some of the most un-ambiguous evidence. This experiment repeatedly fires a laser at the moon, at the spots where the Apollo landing were reported. The dots show when photons are received from the moon. The dark line shows that a large number come back at a specific time, and hence were reflected by something quite small (well under a meter in size). Photons reflected from the surface would come back over a much broader range of times (the whole vertical range of the plot corresponds to only 30 meters or so in range). This only happens when the laser is aimed at the spots where the lunar landings were reported, otherwise the expected featureless distribution is observed.[9]

Although the reflectors are strong evidence that human-manufactured artifacts currently exist on the moon, they do not prove humans have visited the moon. Similar retroreflectors were carried by un-manned missions such as Lunokhod 2, and like the Apollo reflectors, are still in use today.



What do you think ? did we human ever really land on the moon Huh


« Last Edit: December 24, 2008, 04:39:24 am by deathgod » Report Spam   Logged

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